The Heat Transfer Data Book II

Fundamental heat transfer and application know-how
291 pages with numerous tables and pictures. Delivered as a PDF.
The Heat Transfer Databook II -Fundamental heat transfer and application know-how – is a valuable reference in all work and research in heat transfer engineering. The manual provides information and discussions on basic heat transfer, sensible heat transfer, condensing heat transfer, Trufin tubes in air-cool heat exchangers, and Trufin tubes in boiling heat transfer.
Preview the book here: http://www.wieland-thermalsolutions.de/databook2/
Chapters Include:
CHAPTER 1 – BASIC HEAT TRANSFER
CHAPTER 2 – SENSIBLE HEAT TRANSFER
CHAPTER 3 – CONDENSING HEAT TRANSFER
CHAPTER 4 – TRUFIN TUBES IN AIR-COOL HEAT EXCHANGERS
CHAPTER 5 – TRUFIN TUBES IN BOILING HEAT TRANSFER
 
Please contact Sarah Garwood at sgarwood@accessintel.com for group or student pricing.

Fundamentals of Crystallization, Evaporation, Drying and Milling

This Chemical Engineering Guidebook features a collection of tutorial-style engineering articles, to guide process engineers on the proper selection, design, operation and maintenance of systems that are used to carry our crystallization and many related unit operations.
Crystallization is widely used in chemical process industries (CPI) facilities for two main purposes — to produce a given product in crystalline form, and to separate and purify phases in a larger chemical process. It is one of the most challenging unit operations, and as such, many problems can arise during scaleup and operation.
This PDF guidebook includes engineering articles and factsheets related to crystallization, drying, milling, granulation and other forms or particle-size reduction, bulk-solids transport and more.
Several articles focus on state-of-the-art vacuum processing and vacuum drying, while others focus on nitrogen inerting and other ways to ensure safety during crystallization. These practical, how-to articles were originally published in Chemical Engineering magazine, between 2010 and 2018.
149 Pages. Delivered in a PDF format.
Articles Include:
Crystallization
Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP)
Spray Drying Parameters
Challenges of Drying Sticky Wastewater SludgeIn wastewater-sludge drying and dewatering operations, many issues arise from the sticky properties of the sludge.
Particle-Size Reduction
Vacuum Drying: Basics and ApplicationVacuum drying can be a useful tool for solid products that are heat-sensitive. Here are some guidelines for the selection and use of various types of vacuum dryers
Wastewater Sludge Centrifugation Before DryingThe decanter centrifuge is an important piece of equipment for sludge volume reduction prior to thermal drying. Understanding centrifuge operation helps manage drying energy costs
Increase Profits in Size-Reduction PlantsMaterial- and energy-balance models can help to identify potential opportunities
Characterize Bulk Solids to Ensure Smooth FlowTo minimize problems associated with handling all types of bulk solids, engineers must adopt a systematic approach to characterizing the flow and mechanical properties of the materials under a variety of operating conditions
The Benefits Of Two-Stage DryingCircular fluidized-bed dryers can boost the capacity, energy efficiency and product quality when used in conjunction with other primary dryers
Advances in Pin Mill TechnologyImprovements provide finer grinding at lower energy costs compared to air-swept classifying mills that have long reigned supreme in particle-size-reduction efforts
Batch Drying With Vacuum Contact DryersDrying is a demanding unit operation where solvents need to be removed without altering product chemistry. Vacuum dryers are essential pieces of equipment for accomplishing this task
Optimizing Analysis for Spray-DryingPrecise control over spray-drying processes can be enabled by modern measurement approaches that provide information on particle size and shape in realtime
Agglomeration and Granulation
Control Strategies Based On Realtime Particle Size AnalysisPractical experience illustrates how to achieve better process control
Adiabatic-Temperature Rise: An Awkward Calculation Made SimpleHow to estimate a final temperature after a reaction
A Clearer View of CrystallizersImproved understanding of crystallizer equipment and operation can aid purification efforts in the CPI
Biosludge Drying: System Design Schemes for the Sticky PhaseDrying biosludge from wastewater-treatment plants is complicated by the “sticky phase,” making the practice more of an art than a science. Discussed here are efforts to define the beginning and endpoints of this phase analytically
Guarding Against Fires and Explosions Caused by Self-HeatingThe two experimental methods presented here can be used to quantify powder self-heating hazards in layer and bulk conditions in industrial processes
Prevent Combustible Dust Explosions with N2 InertingTargeted use of blanketing with inert gas offers an effective strategy for preventing combustible dust explosions in CPI facilities
A Primer on Spray DryingAn understanding of the basic information presented here will help you produce powdered products with desired characteristics, while operating the drying plant safely and with minimum energy
Selecting theProper Mill for Your ProductUnderstanding breakage behavior is crucial in mills
Heat Transfer in Wiped Film EvaporatorsSimulations demonstrate the complex, changing properties of materials within the evaporator. Such information can help in both designing and selecting the proper evaporator
Confronting Crystallization IssuesReliable information about industrial crystallization can be difficult to find and to apply to new situations. The work process outlined here will help engineers approach crystallization challenges
Industrial Crystallization for the CPIThis overview presents the traditional and emerging types of continuous crystallizers
Reduce Hazards in Process Vacuum SystemsReduce explosion risks, and chemical and physical hazards, to ensure safer operation of vacuum pumps and related systems
MSMPR Crystallization Equipment
An Overview of Vacuum System DesignThe design of vacuum systems deserves careful attention — there are multiple facets that affect efficiency, operability and cost
Vacuum Systems: Recommendations for Safe OperationFollow this guidance to ensure that steam ejector systems, mechanical vacuum pumps and integrated vacuum systems are designed, operated and maintained to ensure process safety
Thin-Film Drying Offers Deep BenefitsThis continuous drying technology is especially safe and flexible, and offers many benefits, including low operating costs, low space requirements and high specific-evaporation capacity

Heat Exchanger Fouling- Mitigation and Cleaning Technologies

This handbook presents, now in the 2nd completely worked over and enlarged edition, the most important technologies concerning the reduction of fouling in heat exchangers beginning with constructional disposition, prevention measures and the appropriate technologies of removal and cleaning. It is an instructive adviser for engineers, maintenance managers and their staff, as well as technical managers.
The authors are experts of involved companies and institutions from the European and American industries.
Delivered in a PDF format.
FOR YOUR EYES ONLY: Please do not forward the PDF. It’s against the law to copy, fax, or electronically transmit without our permission. For group subscription information and discount pricing, contact Sarah Garwood at 301-354-1705.

For inquiries, please contact our Client Services Department at clientservices@accessintel.com, (888) 707-5812 inside the United States or 1-301-354-2100 outside of the United States.

Controlling Corrosion and Fouling: Equipment Operation and Troubleshooting- Vol 1

Delivered in a PDF. 206 pages.
Corrosion and fouling are unavoidable in chemical process operations, yet both can wreak havoc in many ways. If left unchecked, corrosion and fouling can negatively impact process operations, depress conversion rates and product yield, reduce energy efficiency. Meanwhile, corrosion-related damage, and fouling and buildup in process equipment, can lead to unscheduled downtime for maintenance, and in extreme cases, catastrophic failure of process equipment. All of this can create safety issues for plant personnel and neighboring communities, and reduce the overall profitability of the process.
This guidebook contains a collection of practical engineering articles related to corrosion-related issues in specific types of equipment, originally published in Chemical Engineering. Several articles focus on fouling and corrosion issues in aboveground and buried piping. Other articles provide practical guidance for managing and monitoring corrosion in pressure vessels and reactors, heaters, boilers, pumps, condensers, gas turbines and flares.
Contents Include:
Column Revamps: From Outside to InsideSome of the many things to consider for this complex task are presented here
Microreactors: Lessons Learned From Industrial ApplicationsImplementing microreactors in chemical production is quite a challenge. How these challenges can be met is described here
Steam-System Water Preparation
Steam-System Water Preparation
Thermowell Installation
Polymer-based Piping
Controlling Membrane Fouling
Point-Level Switches for Safety SystemsIndustries that manufacture or store potentially hazardous materials need to employ point-level switches to protect people and the environment from spills
Design Underground Piping For SafetyBuried systems bear a number of unique risks and require special considerations, including those related to soil characteristics and seismic loads
Inspecting Underground PipingFirst consider noninvasive methods to determine where excavation is — and isn’t — necessary
Flare Consolidation ConsiderationsConsolidating multiple flares can help mitigate emissions and maintenance
Thermal Design Guidelines for Optimizing Shell-and- Tube Heat ExchangersEnsuring optimal performance of shell-and-tube heat exchangers requires knowledge of the controlling fluid, correct exchanger geometry and configuration, as well as proper fluid placement
Superheater Problems in Steam GeneratorsKnowing the features of a good boiler will prevent problems associated with a poor design
Pressurized Piping: Sampling Steam and WaterWithout proper systems, analysis of steam and water chemistry can provide erroneous results — with costly implications
Pressure-Vessel Quality Control RequirementsUnderstanding what is required for boiler and pressure-vessel manufacturers can help scheduling and cost assessments
Flooded Condenser Controls: Principles and TroubleshootingFlooded condensers are the prime tower pressure-control methods for total condensers that generate only liquid products, and although these control methods can be troublesome, a good understanding of their principles will help achieve improved, trouble-free operations
The Shotgun ApproachRemoval of Fouling Deposits on heat transfer surfaces in Coal-Fired Process Heaters & Boilers When conventional soot blowers are inadequate, an automated shotblasting system offers a powerful solution
Gas Turbines: Design and Operating ConsiderationsFollow these engineering recommendations to improve gas turbine operation and performance while reducing operating costs
A New Approach to Corrosion MonitoringThe impact of corrosion on assets and processes is great. Advances in technology allow engineers to assess corrosion in a whole new way, with realtime monitoring and the ability to link deterioration with process conditions
Compact, High-efficiency Heat Exchangers: Understanding FoulingEngineers should plan to avoid fouling of heat exchangers instead of reacting to it
An Up-Close Look at Electropositive FiltrationElectropositive filters take advantage of surface-charge effects to filter nanometer-sized particles. Provided here is an overview of how they work and where they can be used
Implementing a Corrosion- Under-Insulation ProgramCPI facilities need to put in place a systematic program for preventing and mitigating corrosion under insulation
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: The Design CycleFollowing this step-by-step approach will ensure that the heat exchanger will perform as required when finally fabricated
Beware of Flow- Accelerated CorrosionOperators of steam-generating systems should understand flow-accelerated corrosion and the potential problems it can cause
Piping-System Leak Detection and Monitoring for the CPIEliminating the potential for leaks is an integral part of the design process that takes place at the very onset of facility design
Unlocking the Secrets of Plate-and-Frame Heat ExchangersAn understanding of the design, sizing, specification and installation of plate-and-frame heat exchangers is necessary to evaluate vendors’ proposed designs
Reliable Operation and Sealing of AgitatorsMechanical seals, as required by most vessel agitators, are systems sufficiently complex to warrant a good understanding by engineers and appropriate training for operators
Piping Design for Potentially Lethal ChemicalsIntegrity and reliability are critical for piping and equipment that handle chemicals with extreme health hazards
Optimizing Flare Operation Through Proper DesignFlare problems are often caused by the seal systems that are designed to control air ingress. Follow these troubleshooting guidelines to improve design and ensure safe, reliable flare operation
Piping Codes: What the CPI Engineer Should KnowAn overview of the codes and standards that are most pertinent to chemical processing facilities
Magnetically Driven Pumps: An overviewUnderstanding sealless pump technologies and their potential applications
Troubleshooting Tube-Deterioration Mechanisms in Direct-Fired HeatersA practical step-by-step guide for reducing future tube failure

Essentials of Instrumentation for Monitoring and Control

Proper use of instrumentation is an integral element of monitoring and control in facilities throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). This Chemical Engineering PDF guidebook provides a diverse collection of articles related to the specification, operation, maintenance and troubleshooting of instrumentation systems used for monitoring temperature, pressure and level.
Included are several engineering articles related to flowmeters. It covers important aspects of sensors for control valve positioning, rupture disks to provide reliable pressure relief, monitoring systems for aboveground and underground piping, aspects of monitoring distillation performance and more. Here you will find concepts of safety-instrumented system (SIS) design and operation.
Delivered in a PDF, 214 pages.
Table of Contents

Facts at Your Fingertips: Level Measurement Device Selection

Evaluating Industrial Flowmeters

When it comes to selecting flowmetering devices “one size does not fit all.” Proper meter selection begins with an awareness of flow-measurement science, and a clear understanding of the application requirements

Advances in Industrial Flowmetering

State-of-the-art flowmeters with advanced diagnostics help to minimize downtime and maximize efficiency and costs

New Measurement Practices for Cold Climates

New approaches improve reliability and reduce costs in environments with extremely cold temperatures

The Direct Integration Method: A Best Practice for Relief Valve Sizing

The approach described here is easier to use, and provides more-accurate results, compared to leading valvesizing methodologies

Viscosity: The Basics

An important concept, sometimes forgotten, is that viscosity is not a single-point measurement

pH Measurement And Control

When measured correctly, pH can be an invaluable tool for both product and process control

Distillation Column Thermal Optimization: Employing Simulation Software

Applying process simulation software in distillation column design and operational analysis can lead to significant reductions in operational and maintenance costs and improved column performance

Facts at Your Fingertips: Low-Pressure Measurement

Facts at Your Fingertips: Avoiding Pressure Relief Problems

Facts at Your Fingertips: Causes of Overpressurization

Facts at Your Fingertips: Control valve position sensors

Facts at Your Fingertips: Infrared Temperature Measurement

Facts at Your Fingertips: Selecting Two- and Four-wire Magnetic Flowmeters

Facts at Your Fingertips: Pressure measurement considerations

 Facts at Your Fingertips: Flowmeter Selection

Facts at Your Fingertips: Viscosity Measurement

Facts at Your Fingertips: Level Measurement Devices

Facts at Your Fingertips: Using Rupture Disks with Pressure Relief Valves

Heat Transfer Fluid Leaks: Break the Fire Triangle

Extreme processing temperatures present the greatest risk. Know where leaks are most likely to occur and how to prevent them

Inspecting Underground Piping

First consider noninvasive methods to determine where excavation is — and isn’t — necessary

Vessel Sizing and Level Instrumentation

When sizing process vessels, it is important to consider instrumentation. Consistent, safe and reliable results depend on it

Sizing Calculations for Pressure-Relief Valves

A universal mass-flux equation can improve sizing calculations for pressure-relief valves with non-ideal fluids

Advanced Thermal Dispersion Mass Flowmeters

A look at the principles of operation, installation and calibration

Safety-Instrumented Systems: Control Valves As Final Elements

The scenarios presented here highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a control valve in an SIS

Remote Thermal Sensing

By making it easy to detect heat anomalies, thermal cameras and infrared thermometers support preventive and predictive maintenance

Flow Measurement in Bitter Cold: How to Use Coriolis Meters In Cryogenic Service

With intelligent setup and operation, mass flow measurements can readily be taken even at extremely low temperatures

Level Measurement Technologies For the CPI

The application will determine which technology to select

 Aging Relief Systems — Are they Working Properly?

 Common problems, cures and tips to make sure your pressure relief valves operate properly when needed

Infrared Temperature Monitoring: Know the Right Questions to Ask

The infrared approach is especially useful in situations where process temperatures are extremely high, the target is in motion, and the need to avoid contaminants is significant

Beyond Flowmeter Selection: Consider Some of the Most Overlooked Criteria

The whole-product-lifecycle approach presented here encompasses more than basic selection

Decoding Pressure Vessel Design

Bridging the gap between users’ and manufacturers’ responsibilities for the ASME pressure vessel code

Measuring Flow

Understanding how flowmeters work and the pros and cons of each type of device can help in selecting the right one

Industrial Control Systems Security: The Owner-Operator’s Challenge

Addressing the cybersecurity of industrial control systems requires a collaborative response, beginning with a realistic assessment

Combining the use of Rupture Discs with Relief Valves

Using the two devices together offers significant benefits in chemical processes. Here is how to take advantage of them

Dilute-phase Pneumatic Conveying: Instrumentation and Conveying Velocity

Follow these guidelines to design a well-instrumented and controlled system, and to optimize its conveying velocity 

Warming up to Accurate Temperature Measurement

Proper specification, installation and operation can ensure the accuracy required of your temperature sensor

Wireless Communication in Hazardous Areas

Consider these criteria in deciding where wireless fits in today’s CPI plants and the explosive atmospheres that permeate them

Inline Viscosity Measurements

Process viscometers can help keep process control and product quality in check

Piping-System Leak Detection and Monitoring for the CPI

Eliminating the potential for leaks is an integral part of the design process that takes place at the very onset of facility design 

Going Wireless

Using this technology to optimize overall operations offers longterm benefits for the bottom line

Design of Experiments (DoE): Optimizing Products and Processes Efficiently

Learn how DoE can help save time and money in process design and optimization with this primer

Energy Efficiency: Tracking Natural Gas With Flowmeters

Thermal mass flowmeters provide advantages over other options for metering the consumption of natural gas by individual combustion units throughout the facility

Pressure Transmitter Basics: Selection Guidelines

Climbing the decision tree to pick the right pressure sensor

Pressure Transmitter Basics: DP Transmitters

How a variety of process parameters can be measured with DP transmitters

The Next Step Change in Process Safety

Leveraging the convergence of operational and information technologies can aid in minimizing risk

Measurement Best Practices for Safety Instrumented Systems

How to comply with new standards to maximize plant safety and availability while minimizing life-cycle costs

Applying CPI Temperature Sensors

Don’t fall back on outdated rules of thumb that may no longer be valid, or ‘plug and play’ solutions that may not be applicable

Condition Monitoring Methods for Pumps

Applying condition monitoring tests to pumps can save costs by optimizing overhaul scheduling

MINIMIZING FOULING AND CORROSION: Equipment Operation and Troubleshooting- Volume One

Corrosion and fouling can wreak havoc in many chemical process operations, and can negatively impact process operations, depress chemical-conversion rates and product yield, reduce energy efficiency and incur excess costs associated with maintenance and repairs. Meanwhile, corrosion-related damage, and uncontrolled fouling or buildup in process equipment can lead to unscheduled downtime for maintenance, and in extreme cases, catastrophic failure of process equipment. All of this can create safety issues for plant personnel and neighboring communities, and reduce the overall profitability of the process.
This Chemical Engineering Guidebook contains practical engineering articles related to corrosion-related issues in specific types of equipment. The articles were originally published in Chemical Engineering from 2010 to 2018. Several articles provide practical guidance for managing and monitoring corrosion in pressure vessels and reactors, heaters, boilers, pumps, condensers, gas turbines, flares and more. Others focus on fouling and corrosion issues in aboveground and buried piping and storage tanks.
This guidebook is 198 and delivered in a PDF format.
Topics include:
Column Revamps: From Outside to Inside
• Some of the many things to consider for this complex task are presented here
Microreactors: Lessons Learned From Industrial Applications
• Implementing microreactors in chemical production is quite a challenge. How these challenges can be met is described here
Steam Concepts
Heat Exchanger Standards for Shelland- Tube Equipment
• Reliable operation of shell-and-tube heat exchangers begins with an appropriate standard. This article provides an overview of those that are applicable
Crossflow Membrane Filtration Essentials
• Several aspects of crossflow membrane filtration, including process design, equipment selection and control, are detailed here
Gas-Phase Filtration Media Properties: What to Know
• There are many physical properties that can impact the ultimate performance of adsorbent media in gas-phase filtration applications
Thermowell Installation
Polymer-based Piping
Controlling Membrane Fouling
Wet Scrubbers
Point-Level Switches for Safety Systems
• Industries that manufacture or store potentially hazardous materials need to employ point-level switches to protect people and the environment from spills
Design Underground Piping for Safety
• Buried systems bear a number of unique risks and require special considerations, including those related to soil characteristics and seismic loads
Inspecting Underground Piping
• First consider noninvasive methods to determine where excavation is — and isn’t — necessary
Flare Consolidation Considerations
• Consolidating multiple flares can help mitigate emissions and maintenance
Thermal Design Guidelines for Optimizing Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
• Ensuring optimal performance of shell-and-tube heat exchangers requires knowledge of the controlling fluid, correct exchanger geometry and configuration, as well as proper fluid placement
Superheater Problems in Steam Generators
• Knowing the features of a good boiler will prevent problems associated with a poor design
Pressurized Piping: Sampling Steam and Water
• Without proper systems, analysis of steam and water chemistry can provide erroneous results —with costly implications
Flooded Condenser Controls: Principles and Troubleshooting
• Flooded condensers are the prime tower pressure-control methods for total condensers that generate only liquid products, and although these control methods can be troublesome, a good understanding of their principles will help achieve improved, trouble-free operations
Enclosed Combustion Equipment and Technology
• A thorough understanding of enclosed combustion technologies will help engineers to select the proper equipment to balance emissions-control performance with efficiency, costs and complexity
Operating Strategies for Gas Dehydration Units
• The presence of certain contaminants can wreak havoc on gas dehydration systems and other similar separation processes, but there are design measures that can help to minimize the issues caused by these substances
The Shotgun Approach
• Removal of Fouling Deposits on heat transfer surfaces in Coal-Fired Process Heaters & Boilers
Gas Turbines: Design and Operating Considerations
• Follow these engineering recommendations to improve gas turbine operation and performance while reducing operating costs
Filtration and Separation During Chemical Process Operations: Avoid Common Errors
• The seven commonly made mistakes discussed here often lead to poor filtration and separation performance and many associated problems
An Up-Close Look at Electropositive Filtration
• Electropositive filters take advantage of surface-charge effects to filter nanometer-sized particles. Provided here is an overview of how they work and where they can be used
Getting the Most from Severe Service Valves
• Severe service valves (SSVs) differ from general purpose valves in important ways. Presented here is guidance on how to increase service life, reduce costs and improve safety and environmental performance of SSVs
Implementing a Corrosion-Under-Insulation Program
• CPI facilities need to put in place a systematic program for preventing and mitigating corrosion under insulation
Rotating Machinery: What You Should Know About Operational Problems
• Follow this guidance to improve the operation, safety and reliability of rotating machinery in chemical process plants
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers: The Design Cycle
• Following this step-by-step approach will ensure that the heat exchanger will perform as required when finally fabricated
Piping-System Leak Detection and Monitoring for the CPI
• Eliminating the potential for leaks is an integral part of the design process that takes place at the very onset of facility design
Unlocking the Secrets of Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers
• An understanding of the design, sizing, specification and installation of plate-and-frame heat exchangers is necessary to evaluate vendors’ proposed designs
Reliable Operation and Sealing of Agitators
• Mechanical seals, as required by most vessel agitators, are systems sufficiently complex to warrant a good understanding by engineers and appropriate training for operators
Piping Design for Potentially Lethal Chemicals
• Integrity and reliability are critical for piping and equipment that handle chemicals with extreme health hazards
Optimizing Flare Operation Through Proper Design
• Flare problems are often caused by the seal systems that are designed to control air ingress. Follow these troubleshooting guidelines to improve design and ensure safe, reliable flare operation
Heat-Transfer Fluid Selection
Magnetically Driven Pumps: An overview
• Understanding sealless pump technologies and their potential applications

Air-Pollution Control Volume 2: Focus on High-Temperature Operations

This collection of how-to articles provides useful engineering guidance on an array of topics related to monitoring and managing vapor and particulate emissions that can arise during chemical process operations.
Several articles provide recommendations for understanding environmental regulations, while others share tips for reducing or eliminating fugitive emissions from tanks, burners and combustion units, and other process equipment. There is also focus on optimizing flare systems.
The articles were originally published in Chemical Engineering magazine, from 2012 through 2017. This Guidebook is part of a 2-Volume Set; Volume 1 is sold separately.
Delivered in a PDF format, 125 pages.
Topics Include:
Gas Hazard Definitions and Data
Gas Detection
Activated Carbon
Air Pollution Control: Assessing the Options
Considering Fugitive Emissions During the Conceptual Design Stage
Emissions Regulations and Control
Designing Atmosphere Storage Tanks
Safety in Sulfuric Acid Storage Tanks
Clearing the Air About Respiratory Protection
Reliable Operation and Sealing of Agitators
Eye on Flare Systems
Flare-Gas Recovery Methods for Olefin Plants
Optimizing Flare Operation Through Proper Design
Flare Consolidation Considerations
Advanced Control Methods for Combustion
Burner Inspection and Maintenance
Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Technology
Activated Carbon: Fundamentals and New Applications
Measuring Explosions to Aersols and Dust
Engineering for Plant Safety
Common Mistakes When Conducting a HAZOP and How to Avoid Them
Controlling S02 Without Corroding the Bottom Line

Improving Plant Operability Focus on Reliability- Volume One

Volume one of this two-part guidebook contains practical, how-to engineering articles, and useful engineering “Facts at Your Fingertips” tip sheets. All were originally published in Chemical Engineering.
The collection of articles in this volume focuses on a range of reliability issues affecting a large array of equipment types and unit operations. Several articles discuss improving the reliability of pumps, valves and heat-transfer systems. Others focus on making the most of instrumentation systems that can help to improve plant reliability, while providing guidance on proper equipment selection and monitoring techniques to reduce corrosion risk.
Several articles cover optimizing overall process operations through improvement engineering and proper management of turndown and rangeability, and on improving maintenance techniques to reduce unplanned downtime.
These articles were originally published between 2008 through 2015. This guidebook is available in PDF format only. The other volume of this two-part set, entitled, “Improving Plant Operability — Volume Two: Focus on Safety,” is sold separately.
Delivered in a PDF, 233 pages.
Table of Contents
Facts at Your Fingertips: Maximizing Fan Efficiency
Facts at Your Fingertips: Pressure Measurement Considerations
Project Optimization Through EngineeringFollow these practical recommendations to reduce capital outlay and operating costs, deliver shorter schedules and improve design quality
Advances in Process Temperature Measurement: Trends and TechnologiesProcess temperature measurement is a constantly evolving field, and new technologies have allowed for more reliable measurements to be realized in many applications
Facts at Your Fingertips: Hot-Oil Heat-Tracing Systems
Extremely Low-Temperature SystemsUnderstanding the nuances of low-temperature engineering is key to safe and efficient operations
New Measurement Practices for Cold ClimatesSelecting the right pressure, temperature, flow and level meters and connection systems can help to eliminate the need for heated enclosures and sensing lines
CPI Machinery: Commissioning, Startup and PipingPractical notes on installation, piping, support, layout, nozzle-loads, stress analysis, pre-commissioning, commissioning, startup and operation of rotating machinery
Optimization of a Steam NetworkProper configuration of steam-turbine drivers affects power generation in petroleum refineries
Design Underground Piping for SafetyBuried systems bear a number of unique risks and require special considerations, including those related to soil characteristics and seismic loads
Evaluate Heat-Exchanger Tube-Rupture Scenarios Using Dynamic SimulationApplying dynamic simulation models to tube-rupture scenarios can help ensure more accurate sizing and hazard assessments
Bulk Solids: Optimizing Screw ConveyorsDespite their apparent simplicity, the complexity of these conveying systems demands proper design and an understanding of the underlying principles
Computerized Maintenance Management Systems For Effective Plant PerformanceCorralling gigabytes of predictive maintenance data isn’t easy, but it’s essential for streamlining your process
Get the Most out of Vibration AnalysisBy listening to the messages your components are sending, you will be better able to assess the status of your machinery and take action to address problems
Facts at Your Fingertips: The Impact of Off-BEP Pump Operation
Gas Turbines: Design and Operating ConsiderationsFollow these engineering recommendations to improve gas turbine operation and performance while reducing operating costs
Valve-Selection Best PracticesPrecise combinations of valves and other equipment lead to process success. A biopolymer fermentation process provides an example of proper valve selection
Maximizing Performance In Size Reduction Expect more in selection and scaleup, prediction of energy consumption and reliability
Dynamic Modeling for Steam System ControlDynamic modeling fills in the gaps of steady-state modeling and provides a more complete, reliable and efficient analysis
Industrial Control Systems Security: The Owner-Operator’s Challenge Addressing the cybersecurity of industrial control systems requires a collaborative response, beginning with a realistic assessment
Combining the use of Rupture Discs with Relief Valves Using the two devices together offers significant benefits in chemical processes. Here is how to take advantage of them
Filtration and Separation During Chemical Process Operations: Avoid Common Errors The seven commonly made mistakes discussed here often lead to poor filtration and separation performance and many associated problems
Measuring Exposures to Aerosols and DustAccurate measurements of exposures to aerosols and dusts by plant personnel can be tricky. Here is some help for determining exposures and addressing uncertainties
Mitigate Corrosion in Condensate-Return Systems Understanding the chemistry behind corrosion in condensate-return systems can aid in selecting and properly employing the best mitigation technique
Facts at Your Fingertips: Steel Corrosion 
Determining Friction Factors in Turbulent Pipe FlowSeveral approaches are reviewed for calculating fluid-flow friction factors in fluid mechanics problems using the Colebrook equation
Five Steps to Replacing Aged Heat-Transfer FluidFollow these guidelines to help ensure efficient operation of heat transfer systems, and proper exchange and disposal of aged fluids
Optimal Cooling Systems for Coastal Plants When all economic and environmental factors are considered, a cooling tower may be the best option
Piping-System Leak Detection and Monitoring for the CPIEliminating the potential for leaks is an integral part of the design process that takes place at the very onset of facility design
Best Practices for the Control of Fuel Gas Adopt these practices to ensure new project success, and to achieve safe control and reliable, efficient operation going forward
Managing Large Chemical Plant Startups Prudent planning and scheduling during a project’s front end can lead to more expedient commissioning and startup activities
Critical Connections Demand CertaintyUnderstanding bolts’ behavior during routine tightening procedures helps to ensure leak-free, reliable operations
Industrial Insulation Systems: Material Selection FactorsTo provide the desired functions while being exposed to harsh environments, insulation material should be carefully selected and specified to meet the design goals
Pressure Transmitter Basics: Selection GuidelinesClimbing the decision tree to pick the right pressure sensor
Pneumatic Conveying: Optimal System Design, Operation and ControlNumerous strategies and options for both dilute- and dense-phase conveying systems are presented here
Pipe Insulation: Finding the Optimal ThicknessAvoid tedious numerical calculation by using this quick, shortcut method
Optimizing Flare Operation Through Proper DesignFlare problems are often caused by the seal systems that are designed to control air ingress. Follow these troubleshooting guidelines to improve design and ensure safe, reliable flare operation
Facts at Your Fingertips: Industrial Adsorbents
Improving the Operability of Process PlantsTurndown and rangeability have a big impact on the flexibility and efficiency of chemical process operations
Calculate NPSH with ConfidenceDetermining net positive suction head (NPSH) can be confusing, but with these guidelines, engineers can avoid the pitfalls of incorrect calculations
Applying CPI Temperature SensorsDon’t fall back on outdated rules of thumb that may no longer be valid, or ‘plug and play’ solutions that may not be applicable
Specifying Elastomer Seals for Plastic PipingCareful attention to elastomer properties and variation by manufacturer can help optimize specification
Mechanical Seals Update: Pharmaceutical and Food ApplicationsFor applications that require cleanliness, be sure your centrifugal pumps have the proper seals
Troubleshooting Tube-Deterioration Mechanisms in Direct-Fired Heaters

Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tubes: Tube Types – Materials – Attributes – Machining

The development in the field of heat exchangers is determined decisively by practical needs. On one hand theses apparatus should operate under extreme conditions (for example high pressure and temperature), on the other hand the employment of material should be minimized and has to come to a highest possible thermal power per area and space volume.

These requirements as well have conducted the use of new materials as to the development of novel heat exchanging areas. So, for example, alloyed steels, titanium, graphite, glass and copper alloys could be classified as parent materials meanwhile. At the same time numerous ideas to raise the heat transfer found their way into practice, where they often constitute the basis of modern solution deposits.

This PDF guidebook gives a still actual overview regarding the technology and material engineering of tubes typically used in tube-bundle-heat exchangers. It covers thermal and mechanical attributes, heat transfer optimization via inline structures, integration of tubes as basic elements of heat exchangers, safety in operation and corrosion prevention, damage issues and removal.

342 pages, delivered in a PDF format.
 

Table of Contents:

Introduction
1. Tubes Types

1.1 Materials
Copper as Material in the Apparatus Engineering
Stainless Steels for Use as Heat Exchanger Tube Material
Tubular Heat Exchanger in Titanium and Zirconium
Using Glass-lined Steel Tubes as compared with those made of Special Materials
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers with Tubes made of Borosilicate Glass
Silicon Carbide in the Construction of Heat Exchangers
Tubes made from Synthetic Resign-impregnated Graphite for Shelland -Tube Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers made of Plastic Pipes
Heat Exchanger Tubes from PVDF Flourplastic

1.2 Optimization with Special Forms
Industrial Power Tubes: Structured Surface Tubes
Tubes with Structured Surfaces
Finned Tubes for the Transfer of Heat
Tubes with Spherical Turbulence Generators
Power Plant Upgrading by Installing Performance-optimized
Tube-Bundels in Turbine Surface Condensers

2. Machining of Tubes for Heat Exchangers

2.1 Construction / Prefabrication / Machining
Conditions for the practically oriented Construction and Production of (Heat Exchanger) Tubes
Equipment and Methods of End and Edge Preparation for Pipe and Plateprior Welding
Contents V
Contents

2.2 Welding
Maximized Productivity with Orbital Tube-to-Tubesheet Welding – a case story

2.3 Welding / Rolled Tube Joint / Expanding
Reliable Tube-Tubesheet Connections
Tube and Tube-sheet Joints in Boiler- and Apparatus Constructions
Tube-to-Tube Sheet Joints in Heat Exchangers

3. Surface Treatment for Heat Exchanger Tubes
3.1 Cathodic Protection
Corrosion Prevention in Processing Plants by Applying Corrosion Monitoring

3.2 Pickling / Electrochemical and Chemical Polishing
Interior Surface Conditioning to Increase Service Life
Electrochemical and Chemical Polishing of Heat
Exchangers
Modern Surface Finish Treatment for Stainless Steel
Heat Exchanger Tubes

3.3 Inlet Tube Lining
Inlet Tube Lining

4. Damages/ Damage Removal/ Break-Down Maintenance
Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tube Restoration
Plugging System for Leaking Heat Exchanger Tubes

5. Appendix
Visiting-Cards of Heat Exchanger-Market Partners
Authors Index
Advertisers Index

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For group subscription information and discount pricing, contact Sarah Garwood at sgarwood@accessintel.com.
 

Facts at Your Fingertips Guidebook 2018

Chemical Engineering’s Facts At Your Fingertips package includes a series of twelve condensed, one-page reference cards that provide useful rules of thumb, common equations and other practical tips for designing, operating and maintaining chemical process equipment.This guidebook is available in a downloadable PDF.The topics covered in 2018 include the following:

High-Shear Mixing
Flow Measurement in Large Lines, Ducts and Stacks
Industrial Combustion Products
Corrosion Complications
Activated Sludge Process
Seal Material Properties
UN Codes for Packaging Dangerous Goods
Maintaining Heat-Transfer-Fluid Quality
Kilogram Standard
Filtration Process Design and Optimization
Resistance Temperature Detectors
Distillation: Comparing Experiments and Simulations